Ciência e Tecnologia, assigned amount € 249 994,79
Filipa Fiúza (Co-PI)
ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Arquivo Histórico Ultramarino (Direção-Geral do Livro, dos Arquivos e das Bibliotecas)
Arquivos Histórico Militar (Estado Maior do Exército)
Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian
Universidade Agostinho Neto (Luanda)
Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (Maputo)
It entails 2 phases:
1)assessment of the housing production carried out in the last 14 years of colonialism (and late Salazarism), considering the colonial society and the 3 agents of Colonial Public Works (CPW) involved, through archival and documentary treatment, cartography and historical description;
2)its identification and critical analysis in the immediate period of 1974/75 (abandonment, reconfiguration, appropriation) and its contribution to inequality in access and housing quality (plastic, technical, functional) by post-independence societies.
The research explores the role of war in the emergence of control mechanisms based on Architecture and Urbanism, taking housing as epicentral. It observes 3 scenarios:
a)Middle-class and affordable urban expansion neighborhoods, built over slums, to lodge and control populations;
b)Settlements located in strategic economic areas;
c)Rural resettlements resulting from the massive displacement of African peasants.
In the 1st phase, the study considers 3 groups of inhabitants involved in colonial narratives:
It analyzes urban and rural landscapes and identifies the 3 main colonial agents:
a)Self-employed Architects, in urban environments, using the architectural culture on collective housing programs;
b)Technicians (architects, engineers and others) from the different CPW departments, intervening on urban and rural territories, focused on compromise solutions between a disciplinary approach (idealistic) and an efficient response (pragmatic) to meet quantitative demands, with relative success in cities (medium-scale neighborhoods for African workers) and settlements of natural resources exploitation (agricultural and mineral);
c)Military with different backgrounds, making use of orthogonal grids and standardization techniques, with significant efficiency in the production of single-family housing for rural populations.
Their performance will be analyzed and described within the methodologies of Architecture, Urbanism and History, based on concepts related to practices of CPW, such as
ii)Control in design;
v)Design with the climate;
Specific roles played by corporative and non-governmental institutions as Gulbenkian in war zones will be considered at this point. Studying 3 countries from a comparative perspective will allow to approach Portuguese colonial practices comprehensively and identify national specificities. Overseas and Military Historical Archives have extensive documentation from CPW and military departments on housing production (architecture, urban plans, reports). Its treatment by the current project will make it accessible to the scientific community.